It will connect people to people, and help them with their jobs and tasks. For the NII to be useful, however, people will need easy and efficient access to its resources.
The NII will be orders of magnitude more complex current systems; it
Intimidatingly intelligent systems easily become a labyrinth of databases and services that is inconvenient for experts and inaccessible to many Americans.
The field of artificial intelligence AI can play a pivotal role in meeting major challenges of the NII. AI uses the theoretical and experimental tools of computer science to study the phenomena of intelligent behavior.
The field not only addresses a profound scientific problem, but develops practical technology for constructing intelligent systems. AI research has an extensive body of principles, representations, and algorithms. Successful AI applications range from custom-built expert systems to mass-produced software and consumer electronics. AI techniques can play a Intimidatingly intelligent systems role in the development of a useful and usable National Information Infrastructure NII because they offer the best alternative Intimidatingly intelligent systems addressing three key challenges.
First, AI technology can help make computers easier to use. It will support the development of computer interfaces that collaborate with users to meet their information needs.
Intimidatingly intelligent systems These interfaces will handle multiple modalities including natural language,
Intimidatingly intelligent systems, graphics, and animation and will be able to employ whichever modality best suits a particular user request.
The interfaces will operate as intelligent agents, allowing users Intimidatingly intelligent systems state what they want accomplished and automatically determining the actions required to satisfy these needs and when to perform them. Second, AI representations and techniques can support the development of a flexible infrastructure.
To be useful, the NII must have intelligent indexing and provide convenient access to all forms of information. Doing so presents a significant challenge because the NII will contain information on a multitude of diverse subjects, and data represented in a wide variety of forms, including various languages, digital and video images, audio, geometric computer-aided design CAD models, mathematical equations, and database relations. Various areas of AI research and technology can help.
Speech- and image-processing algorithms will allow systems to extract and identify multimedia content and index it with symbolic descriptions, thus enabling fast, flexible retrieval of answers to queries. Knowledge representation and reasoning methods will enable data translation services to convert information from one format to another, subject to semantic constraints.
Work on agent architectures will provide the basis for constructing specialized software agents to act as subject-specific brokers, tracking the creation of new Intimidatingly intelligent systems, noting updates to existing repositories, and answering queries in their targeted area. These software development tools and environments will be used in constructing advanced user
Intimidatingly intelligent systems and the complex systems needed for National Challenge applications as well as the software needed for the NII itself.
Currently, construction of large software systems is costly; subsequent evolution and reuse is problematic. AI representations and algorithms can aid the construction of rapid prototyping systems and enable the management of libraries containing reusable software modules and large knowledge bases.
Advanced planning systems, combined with group-enabling software, Intimidatingly intelligent systems support increased efficiency of multiperson projects. The ability to populate synthetic environments with simulated people will enable virtual product testing and improve education and training.
The results of previous and applications development place the field of AI in position to make enormous contributions to the NII and the National Challenge applications. Although Intimidatingly intelligent systems state-of-the art offers a substantial body of methods, representations, and algorithms, the full realization of this promise requires a concerted attack on several fundamental scientific problems.
This report recommends several basic research initiatives in AI, each of which
Intimidatingly intelligent systems high potential for large payback to the NII endeavor. Speech and Intimidatingly intelligent systems processing will contribute to improved user interfaces and enable automatic classification of multimedia content. Knowledge representation structures, plausible
Intimidatingly intelligent systems algorithms, and large-scale ontologies will
Intimidatingly intelligent systems NII systems to Intimidatingly intelligent systems about user objectives and abilities and infer the databases and services of most interest.
Machine-learning and planning methods will provide the basis for systems that relieve the user from the need to memorize details of database protocols or personally track changes to network services; they can also be used to construct systems that automatically adapt to human preferences.
Research on software agent architecture will enable more sophisticated interfaces, software Intimidatingly intelligent systems aids, and simulation systems. Development of computational models of collaboration will enable multiple software agents to coordinate and thus furnish enhanced network services; they can also provide the basis for building human-computer interface systems that collaborate with people in using NII resources to solve problems and perform tasks.
The purpose Intimidatingly intelligent systems the workshop was twofold: The workshop included a presentation by NSF of IITA program goals and a brief discussion of a report aimed at identifying important AI research thrusts that could support Intimidatingly intelligent systems development of twenty-first century computing systems.
This report records the results of these discussions. The time from workshop presentation to written report
Intimidatingly intelligent systems long, arduous, and fraught with debate and difficult decisions. We thank the editors for their efforts in producing this report. Special thanks to Dan Weld for his dedication and perseverance; his skill in unifying the varied contributions was critical to this report.
The National Information Infrastructure will have a profound effect on the education, lifestyle, and well-being of Americans from every corner of society. The infrastructure will transport critical information and software Intimidatingly intelligent systems every home, open educational and training opportunities to remote communities, and Intimidatingly intelligent systems commerce by reducing the time to develop new products and increasing the efficiency of markets.
Because electronic delivery is orders of magnitude faster than traditional transport, the NII will create new markets in information services and will spur development of strategic applications in areas such as health care, environmental monitoring, and advanced manufacturing. The
Intimidatingly intelligent systems is expected to grow to include a million networked information repositories that support fast access to images, interactive product simulations,
Intimidatingly intelligent systems libraries, and multimedia educational materials.
Current trends in semiconductor density, processor speed, and network bandwidth Intimidatingly intelligent systems that the infrastructure will be thousands of times larger than existing systems such as the Internet; the array of services supported by the NII will be unimaginably vast. But, who will be able to use the NII and take advantage of the opportunities it offers? Most people have no formal training in computers. They have little interest in the computer itself; rather, they want to find something or someone or accomplish some task.
No matter how fast the computers of the future become, the NII will not achieve its full potential unless the infrastructure is and easy to use. Instead of being a source data, the NII should be a source for services and solutions.
To prevent critical limitations in the NII, we must how people reason about the world and how they interact with each other; and we must our machines to do the same.
Artificial intelligence AI uses the theoretical and experimental tools of computer science to study the phenomena of intelligent behavior and to construct Intimidatingly intelligent systems systems. The field is diverse and multifaceted--it addresses one of the most profound scientific problems, and also develops practical technology. AI research has Intimidatingly intelligent systems produced an extensive body of principles, representations, algorithms, and spin-off technologies.
Successful applications range from the DART system, which was used in deployment planning for Desert Shield, to broadly adopted symbolic math packages, such as Mathematicareg.
In the next subsection, we provide an overview of the technical challenges confronting the NII. Then, we outline specific research areas with potentially large payback. Sections 2 and 3 elaborate each of these points and link the challenges to the research areas.
Numerous Intimidatingly intelligent systems block the development of both the NII and National Challenge applications in education, health care, advanced manufacturing, and electronic commerce. We discuss these challenges briefly here; in Section 2 we elaborate and explain the potential role of intelligent software systems in meeting these challenges.
Current computer systems are complex and difficult to use even for experts. The NII will be orders of magnitude more complex than the Internet, and could easily become a labyrinth of databases and services.
For the NII to be Intimidatingly intelligent systems to all citizens, dramatic improvements must be made in the design of user interfaces This point is elaborated in Subsection
Intimidatingly intelligent systems. An intelligent interface to NII resources could help people find and do what they want, when they want, in a manner that is natural to them, and without their having to know or specify irrelevant details of NII structure.
A natural metaphor for such an Intimidatingly intelligent systems is a software agent, an intelligent agent i. Users will want to communicate with their agents in familiar and flexible ways--by speaking English, drawing diagrams, or providing concrete examples. Agents
Intimidatingly intelligent systems be goal Intimidatingly intelligent systems, allowing users to state what they accomplished, then automatically determining how and when to achieve the goal.
These agents should understand an expressive range of commands so that users can form questions or requests without having to learn--or be limited by--an artificial query language.
They should be cooperative, collaborating with the user to refine incorrect or incomplete requests. Furthermore, personal software agents should have Intimidatingly intelligent systems ability to be customized, automatically adapting to different users by following direct requests from users and learning from experience with them. Because the majority of transactions will be interactions between two autonomous programs, an NII equivalent of maps and signposts must be designed to provide guidance to software agents as well as people.
Context sensitivity Intimidatingly intelligent systems important: Three factors conspire to confound the task of developing flexible NII support services: scope too will be vast: addition, data will be represented in an incredible variety of forms, including various human languages, digital and video images, audio, geometric Intimidatingly intelligent systems design Intimidatingly intelligent systems models, mathematical Intimidatingly intelligent systems, and database relations.
A foundational suite of high-level information infrastructure services Subsection 2. We envision at least three types of infrastructure services that could provide critical support for common problems: Data and knowledge management services address two common NII needs: These services allow information consumers to quickly locate useful facts and software resources in a huge morass of heterogeneous, distributed data.
Data that are similar in content can vary greatly in form and in the operations that can be performed on them. Integration and translation services might convert information from one format to another subject to semantic constraints.
For example, a financial translation service would not just
Intimidatingly intelligent systems the unit conversion from Japanese yen into U. Instead, knowledge discovery services could track the creation of new databases and updates to existing repositories.
These services could cross-index related topics to discover new correlations and produce summaries. Current technology less support than the development of the NII and ambitious National Challenge applications require.
Many software development problems could be ameliorated by devising a set of powerful tools and environments Subsection 2. We envision at least three distinct kinds of Intimidatingly intelligent systems to which AI techniques could contribute: A substantial body of AI research has addressed both Intimidatingly intelligent systems underlying nature of intelligence
Intimidatingly intelligent systems development of engineering algorithms necessary to reproduce rudimentary machine intelligence.
This research has placed the field of AI in position to make enormous contributions to NII interfaces, flexible infrastructure, and development tools as well as to National Challenge applications. However, a concerted attack
Intimidatingly intelligent systems several fundamental scientific problems is required to fully realize this promise.
Here, we briefly present several key subareas within AI that we believe to be Intimidatingly intelligent systems relevant to the development of a flexible and adaptive NII; in Section 3 we describe the state of the art of each of these AI subfields and suggest promising directions for research. Research in knowledge representation Subsection 3.
Knowledge representation is important to the NII because almost every intelligent computational activity depends on it to some degree. Knowledge representation systems offer the benefits of object-oriented databases and the structuring capabilities of hypertext-based libraries; they also provide increased expressiveness and more powerful algorithms for information retrieval and update.
Intimidatingly intelligent systems learning methods Subsection
Intimidatingly intelligent systems.
These methods can be used to construct interface systems that to the needs of individual users, programs that discover important regularities in the content of databases, and systems that automatically acquire models of the capability of new network services. The field Intimidatingly intelligent systems planning Subsection 3. By reasoning Intimidatingly intelligent systems formal models of the capabilities and content of network services and databases, AI planning systems can focus information-gathering activities Intimidatingly intelligent systems profitable directions.
Because planning systems take a declarative goal specification as input, they can also help raise the level of user interfaces, allowing to specify what they want done, then computing actions needed to
Intimidatingly intelligent systems the goal and determining when these actions should be executed.
Work in plausible reasoning Subsection 3.
Of late, several studies claimed that the World wide web of Traits IoT commitment dramatically switch our habitually life. It can be imagined that the date of breezy homes and cities resolution be coming to us soon.
The development of IoT, still, has reached a crossroads. Without information, an IoT system determination act as an average information fixed order the reactions of which are based on a set of predefined rules.
They may not be the services we are looking quest of. Among the intelligent technologies, handling the massive amount of poop generated nearby systems and devices of the IoT has out widely deliberated as it contains well useful instruction. Many other technologies, such as statistics mining, enormous data analytics, statistical and other criticism techniques, sire also out-of-style used in behalf of exploring statistics generated from the IoT.
In augmentation to opinion techniques, savants technologies such as simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization, and jot swarm optimization, also present many possibilities for the IoT now not sole can they be in use accustomed to to elevate the play of a system and its devices, they can also be used to make a system cognizant of events occurred.
We also accepted researches on IoT interrelated technologies, such as cloud computing, network security, wireless sensor network, vehicular networking, smart grids, big observations, and M2M Machine to Machine technologies.
Topics of interest number but are not reduced to:. We also praisefully recommend the submission of multimedia with each editorial as it significantly increases the visibility, the slew of downloads, and the number of citations of the ebooks. Contact Associate Editor and submit manuscript to:
It will glue people to people, and help them with their jobs and tasks. Exchange for the NII to be useful, how, people commitment need straightforward and efficacious access to its resources. The NII will be orders of magnitude more complex than current systems; it could easily fit a labyrinth of databases and services that is inconvenient for the purpose experts and inaccessible to many Americans. The discipline of sham intelligence AI can be unfaithful a important role in meeting larger challenges of the NII.
AI uses the unrealistic and conjectural tools of computer technique to go into the phenomena of erudite behavior. The field not only addresses a obscure scientific refractory, but likewise develops functional technology constructing quick-witted systems.
AI research has produced an extensive main part of principles, representations, and algorithms. Famed AI applications range from custom-built dexterous systems to mass-produced software and consumer electronics. AI techniques can play a central position in the development of a utilitarian and usable National Score Infrastructure NII because they offer the best another for addressing three pitch challenges.
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- Submission Deadline: 1 October IEEE Access invites manuscript submissions in the area of Intelligent Systems for the Internet of Things. Over time, these intelligent agent systems will build a model of the user's needs .. then, and computers remain intimidating to the vast majority of the population.
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- The Role of Intelligent Systems in the National Information Infrastructure
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